Dr. Mahmoud M. Ayoub


Emeratus professor of Islamic Studies/Comparative Religion

Department of Religion,

Temple University

And resident scholar at the Hartford Seminary, Hartford CT, 06105, U. S. A.


Tel:       215-300-2393;      Fax: 860-






American University of Beirut, Lebanon, Philosophy, 1961-64, 1964, BA.


University of Pennsylvania, Religious Thought, 1964-65, 1966, MA.


Harvard University, History of Religion, 1966-75, 1975, Ph.D.





Redemptive Suffering in Islam: A Study of the Devotional Aspects of ‘Ashura’ in Twelver Shi’ism, 1975. (Annemarie Schimmel, advisor)





Fall 1999 – present: Editorial Consultant, Oxford Dictionary of Islam, Oxford University Press.


Spring 1999 – present: Visiting Professor, University of Balamand, Tripoli, Lebanon


Fall 1997 – 2000: Visiting Professor, Reconstructionist Rabbinical College, Wyncote, PA.


Spring 1997: Visiting Professor, Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding, Georgetown University, Washington, DC.


Fall 1996: Visiting Professor, Lutheran Theological Seminary, Philadelphia, PA.


1993 – 1999: Member of the Advisory Board of the Temple of Understanding


1991 – 1993: Member of the Advisory board of the Jewish Chautauqua Society, New York, NY.


1990 – present: Member of the Editorial Board of the Journal, Islam and Christian Muslim Relations.


July 1988–January 2008: Professor, Islamic Studies, Department of Religion, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA.


1988 – 1994: Adjunct Professor, D.B. Macdonald Center of Islamic Studies and Muslim-Christian Relations, Hartford Seminary, Hartford CT. Beginning July 2008: resident scholar Hartford Seminary.


1988 – present: Research Fellow, Middle East Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.


1988 – present: Editorial Consultant, The Muslim World journal, Hartford, CT.

1978 - June 1988: Research Associate, Centre for Religious Studies, University of Toronto, Toronto Canada.


1981-1984: Visiting Professor, Balamand Eastern Orthodox Seminary, Koura, Lebanon.


1979-1980:  Visiting Professor, McGill University, Institute for Islamic Studies, Montreal Canada. 


1978: Visiting Professor, Centre for Religious Studies, University of Toronto, Toronto Canada.


1975-1977: Assistant Professor of Religious Studies, San Diego State University, San Diego CA.


1973-1974: Lecturer in Religious Studies, University of Alberta, Edmonton Canada.






Redemptive Suffering in Islam: A Study of the Devotional Aspects of ‘Ashura’ in Twelver Shi’ism. The Hague: Mouton and Co, 1978, pp. 229. (Revised Ph.D. thesis)


The Revealer, the Messenger and the Message. A translation of al-Mursil wa-al-Rasul wa-al-Risalah of Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr. Tehran: World Organization for Islamic Services, 1979, pp. 166.


The Great Tiding: An Annotated Translation of the Thirtieth Part of the Qur’an. Tripoli: The Islamic Call Society, 1983, pp. 176.


The Qur’an and Its Interpreters. Volume 1. Albany: SUNY Press, 1984, pp. 290.


Islam and the Third Universal Theory: Mu’ammar Qadhdhafi’s Religious Thought. London: Routledge and Keagan Paul, 1987, pp. 155.


Beacons of Light: Muhammad the Prophet and Fatimah the Radiant. A partial translation of I’lam al-Wara bi-A’lam al-Huda by Abu ‘Ali  al-Fadl b. al-Hasan al-Tabarsi. Co-authored with L. Clarke. Tehran: World Organization for Islamic Services, 1986 (appeared in 1992), pp. 250.


Islam: Faith and Practice. Ontario: The Open Press, 1989, pp. 229.


The Qur’an and Its Interpreters. Volume 2. Albany: SUNY Press, 1992, pp. 431.


Nahwa al-Jidal al-Ahsan (Towards a Fairest Dialogue: Lectures on Muslim-Christian Theological Understanding). Lebanon: The Catholic Press of ‘Ariya, 1997.


The Awesome News: Interpretation of Juz’ ‘Amma. 2nd edition. World Islamic Call Society, 1997 (Revised edition of The Great Tiding).


Mengurai Konflik Muslim-Kristen Dalam Perspektif Islam (Indonesian, lit. Muslim-Christian Conflict Resolution in Islamic Perspective).  Yogyakarta, Indonesia: Fajar Pustaka Baru, 2001.


Dirasat fi al-Alaqat al-Masihiyyah al-Islamiyyah (Studies in Christian-Muslim Relations) 2 vols. Beirut: Markaz al-Dirasat al-Masihiyyah al-Islamiyyah, (vol.1), 2000, (vol. 2), 2001.


The Crisis of Muslim History: Religion and Politics in Early Islam. Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 2003.


Islam: Faith and History. Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 2004.


A Muslim View of Christianity. ed. Irfan Omar. Orbis Books, NY, 2007

Articles/Book Chapters/Entries


“A Muslim View of Christianity.” Humanoria Islamica 2 (1974): 121-137.


“Towards an Islamic Christology: An Image of Jesus in Early Shi’i Muslim Literature.” The Muslim World, lxvi (3) (1976): 163-188.  Trans. “Auf dem Weg zu einer islamischen Christologie” in Lust an der Erkenntnis: Die Theologie des 20. Jahrhunderts, ed. Karl-Josef Kuschel (Munich: Piper, 1986).


“The Problem of Suffering in Islam.” Journal of Dharma, (1977): 267-294.


“The Prayer of Islam [on Surat al-Fatihah],” Journal of the American Academy of Religion Volume 47 (4S) (1979): 635-647.


“The Concept and the Role of the Imam in Twelver Shi’ism,” Alserat, Volume 5 (1979): 3-11.


“Marathi and the Shi’i Ethos,” Alserat 6 (1980): 22-29.


“Towards an Islamic Christology II: The Death of Jesus, Reality or Delusion?” The Muslim World 70, 2 (1980): 91-121.


“Dhimmah in the Qur’an and Hadith.” Arab Studies Quarterly 5 (1983): 172-182.


“The Idea of Redemption in Christianity and Islam,” in Mormons and Muslims, ed. Spencer J. Palmer. Salt Lake City: Publisher’s Press, 1983, pp. 105-116.


“Muslim Views of Christianity: Some Modern Examples.” Islamochristiana 10 (1984): 49-70.


“A Muslim Appreciation of Christian Holiness.” Islamochristiana 11 (1985): 91-98.


“The Word of God and the Voices of Humanity,” in The Experience of Religious Diversity. Ed. John Hick and Hassan Askari, Elder, England: Gower Publishing Co., 1985, pp. 53-67.


“Excellences of Imam Husayn in Sunni Hadith Tradition,” in Imam Husayn in Muslim Tradition. London: Routledge and Keagan Paul, 1986, pp. 58-70.


“The Word of God in Islam,” in Muslim-Greek Orthodox Relations. Boston: Holy Cross Orthodox Press, 1986, vol. 31, no. 1-2, pp. 69-78.


“‘Uzayr in the Qur’an and Muslim Tradition.” In Studies in Islamic and Judaic Traditions. Eds. William M. Brinner and Stephen D. Ricks. Atlanta, GA: Scholars’ Press, 1986, pp. 3-18.


“Divine Preordination and Human Hope: A Study of the Concept of Bada’ in Imami Shi’i Tradition.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 106, 4 (1986): 623-632.


“Martyrdom in Christianity and Islam.” In Religious Resurgence: Contemporary Cases in Islam, Christianity, and Judaism, eds. R. T Antoun and Mary E. Hegland,  Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1987, pp. 67-77.


“Islam Between Ideals and Ideologies: Toward a Theology of Islamic History.” In The Islamic Impulse, ed. B. Freyer-Stoewasser London: Croom-Helm, 1987, pp. 297-319.


“Revelation and Salvation: Towards an Islamic View of History,” (delivered at Kennedy Institute Trialogue, April 1983). Alserat, 13 (1987): 10-25.


“The Speaking Qur’an and the Silent Qur’an.” In Approaches to the History of the Interpretation of the Qur’an. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988, pp. 177-198.

 “Divine Preordination and Human Hope: A Study of the Concept of Bada’ in Imami Shi’i  Tradition, ” Persian translation, Mishkat (Meshhad, Iran), No. 20, (Autumn 1988): 36-52.


“Interview” in Neighbors: Muslims in North America, ed. Elias Mallon New York: Free Press, 1989, pp. 94-104.


“‘Ashura’.” In Encyclopedia of Religion, ed. M. Eliade.


“al-Hilli.” In Encyclopedia of Religion, ed. M. Eliade.


“Qur’an: Its Impact on the Community” In Encyclopedia of Religion, ed. M. Eliade.


“‘Ashura’.” In Encyclopedia Iranica, ed. Ihsan Yarshatar


“Roots of Muslim-Christian Conflict.” Muslim World 79, 1 (1989): 25-45.


“One God, Many Faiths: Islam and the Challenge of Inter-religious Dialogue.” The Drew Gateway 58, 3 (1989): 52-57.


“Thanksgiving and Praise in the Qur’an and in Muslim Piety.” Islamochristiana (Journal of Vatican Secretariat for Non-Christians) 15 (1989): 1-10.


“Law and Grace in Islam: Sufi Attitudes toward the Shari’a.” in Religion and Law: Biblical-Judaic and Islamic Perspectives, eds. Edwin Firmage, et. al. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1990, pp. 221-229.


“The Islamic Context of Muslim-Christian Relations.” In Conversion and Continuity: Indigenous Christian Communities in Islamic Lands, eds. Michael Gervers and Ramzi Jibran Bikhazi. Toronto, Ont: Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies, 1990, pp. 461-477.


“Divine Revelation and the Person of Jesus Christ.” In Newsletter of the Office of Christian-Muslim Relations of the National Council of Churches. 1990.


“Islam and Christianity: Between Tolerance and Acceptance.” In Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations,  (December 1991), pp. 171-181.


“Methodological Approaches to Islamic Thought and History.” In Research in Islamic Civilization: Outlook for the Coming Decade, ed. Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu. IRCICA: Istanbul, 1992, pp. 37-57.


“The Word and the Way: The Human Quest for God in Islamic Mysticism” (Das Wort und der Weg: Des Menschen Suche nach Gott in der islamischen Mystik) in Horen auf sein Wort Verlag St. Gabriel, Modling, 1992, pp. 167-187.


Jihad: A Source of Power and Framework of Authority in Islam.” Bulletin of the Institute of Middle Eastern Studies (Japan) 6 (1992): 205-232.


“The Miracle of Jesus: Reflections on the Divine Word.” In Christology in Dialogue.  Eds. Robert Barkey and Sarah Edwards. Pilgrim Press, 1993, pp. 221-228.


“The Qur’an Recited.” Middle East Studies Association Bulletin 27, 2 (1993), pp. 169-171.


“The Need for Harmony and Collaboration between Muslims and Christians.” Information and Formation, a Journal published by the Catholic Research Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 1994.


“The Muslim Ummah and the Islamic State.” In The Role and Influence of Religion in Society. Eds. Syed Othman Alhabshi & Syed Omar Syed Agil. Malaysia: Institute of Islamic Understanding, 1994, 49-57.


“Religious Freedom and the Law of Apostasy in Islam.” Islamochristiana 20 (1994): 75-91.


“Traditional Western Analysis: A Response.” Ecumenism, 116 (December 1994): 16-17.


“The Five Pillars of Islam;” “Qur’an: History of the Text” and “Husayn Ibn ‘Ali”. In The Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World, Oxford University Press, 1995.


“And the Earth Shall Shine Forth: Fall and Restoration in Judaism, Christianity and Islam.” Journal of Conservative Judaism 47, 2 (Winter 1995), pp. 17-36.


“Jesus the Son of God: A Study of the Terms Ibn and Walad in the Qur’an and Tafsir Tradition.” In Christian-Muslim Encounters, eds. Yvonne Y. Haddad & Wadi Z. Haddad. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1995, pp. 65-81.


“The Qur’an in Muslim Life and Practice.” The Muslim Almanac: A Reference Work on the History, Faith, Culture, and Peoples of Islam, ed. Azim A. Nanji. New York: Gale Research Inc., 1995.


Entries: “‘Alids,” “‘Ashura’,” “Duruz,” “Hujjat al-Islam,” “Husayn ibn ‘Ali,” and “Ta’ziyah.” In The Harper Collins Dictionary of Religion. Edited by Jonathan Z. Smith and William Scott Green, San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1996.


“The Islamic Tradition.” In World Religions: Western Traditions. Edited by Willard G. Oxtoby. Toronto and New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, pp. 352-491.


“Das Mystische im Koran: Muhammads Mystische Vision.” In Hermeneutik in Islam und Christentum: Beitrage zum interreligiosen Dialog. Edited by Hans-Martin Barth and Christoph Elsas. Hamburg: E.B.-Verlag, 1997, pp. 127-40.


“Repentance in the Islamic Tradition.” In Repentance: A Comparative Perspective. Edited by Amitai Etzioni and David E. Carney. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 1997, pp. 60-75.


“Nearest in Amity: Christians in the Qur’an and Contemporary Exegetical Tradition.” In Journal of Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations 8, 2, (July 1997): 145-64.


“Pope John Paul II on Islam.” In Open Catholicism: The Tradition at Its Best. Edited by David Efroymson and John C. Raines. Minnesota: The Liturgical Press, 1997, pp. 190-205.


“The Word and the Way: The Human Quest for God in Islamic Mysticism” (Arabic). In al-Isgha’ ila Kalam Allah fi al-Masihiyyah wa al-Islam. Lebanon: al-Maktabah al-Bulusiyyah, 1997.


“Islam and Pluralism.” Encounters 3, 2 (Sept. 1997): 103-18.


“The Numinous in the Qur’an: An Assessment of Rudolf Otto’s View of Islam.” The Muslim World 88, 3-4 (1998): 256-67.


“Al-Kawniyyah wal-Shumuliyyah wal-Ta’addudiyyah fi al-Masihiyyah wal-Islam” (Universalism, Inclusivism and Pluralism in Christianity and Islam). In Summer Symposium. Published by the Center for Christian-Muslim Studies, University of Balamand, 1999.


“Cult and Culture: Common Saints and Shrines in Middle Eastern Popular Piety.” In Richard G. Hovannisian and Georges Sabagh (eds.), Religion and Culture in Medieval Islam. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.


“Islam and the Challenge of Religious Pluralism.” Global Dialogue 2, 1 (Winter 2000): 53-64.


“Literary Exegesis of the Qur’an.” In Issa J. Boulatta (ed.), Literary Structures of Religious Meaning in the Qur’an. Richmond: Curzon Press, 2000, pp. 292-309.

“al-Islam fi Amirika” (“Islam in America”). Al-Minhaj 21 (Spring 2001), pp. 145-74.


“Religious Pluralism and The Challenges of Inclusivism, Exclusivism and Globalism: An Islamic Perspective”. In Th. Sumartana et. al. (eds.), Commitment of Faiths: Identity, Plurality and Gender. Yogyakarta, Indonesia: Institute of DIAN/Interfidei, 2002.


The Children of Abraham: a Muslim Perspective, in Heirs of Abraham: the Future of Muslim, Jewish and Christian Relations.  Bradford Hinze and Irfan A. Omar Eds., (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 2005.


“Muhammad.” In volume on “Arabic Literary Culture, c. 500-925,” Dictionary of Literary Biography, 2005.


“Creation and Evolution,”, the proceedings of the Religion and Science Conference in Yogjakarta, Indonesia, 2002, 2005


The Cambridge Dictionary of Christianity, entry: “Muslim Views of Christianity, 2007. 





1.   “The Role of the Qur’an as Scripture in the Early Muslim Era.” Conference: ‘Scriptural Canons and Cultural Contexts,’ University of Toronto (October 1988)


2. “Islamic Studies in the West: Orientalism, Its Past, Present, and Future,” (Arabic). University of Jordan, Amman (March 1989)


3. “Cultures of Peace.” Center for International Development and Conflict Management, University of Maryland (June 1989)


4. “Mysteries of the Qur’an: A Study of Shahrastani’s Tafsir Methodology” Conference on Qur’anic Studies, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London (March 1990)


5. Distinguished lectures: “Islam” & “Islam and Modernity;” Randolph-Macon College, Virginia (March 1989)


6. “Islamic Mysticism and the Universality of Faith;” International Conference on Muslim-Christian Relations, Theologische Hochschule St. Gabriel, Vienna (April 1990)


7. “Jesus the Son of God: an Analysis of the Terms ‘Ibn’ and ‘Walad’ in the Qur’an;” International Conference on Muslim-Christian Relations, Hartford Seminary, Hartford, CT. (June 1990)


8. “The Meaning of Suffering” Inter-religious Symposium. Saint Paul School of Theology, Kansas City, MO (1990).


9. “God’s Earth and Human Stewardship.” Interfaith Consultation sponsored by the Vatican, the World Council of Churches and the Islamic Call Society, Malta (April 1991).


10. “An Image of Jesus in Muslim Hagiography.”  Conference on Religion, Cornell University (October 1991)


11. “Islam in the Modern World.” Church of the Brethren Annual Convention, Portland, OR (July 1991)


12. Roundtable Discussion on “Islam and Muslim-Christian Relations.” Center for Islam and Muslim Christian Relations, Selly Oaks Colleges, United Kingdom (October 1991)


13. “The Children of Abraham: Jewish-Muslim Dialogue.” Endowed Lecture: Beth El Synagogue, Harrisburg, PA (May 1991).


14. “The Qur’an and Its Place in the Community.” and “Exegesis of the Qur’an.” Lectures: Institute of Isma’ili Studies, London (Nov1991).


15. “The Children of Abraham: Islam and the People of the Book.” College Theology Society Convention, Allentown College, PA (May 1992).


16. “Islam and Muslim-Christian Dialogue.” Keynote speaker, Asian Bishops Conference, Multan, Pakistan (October 1992).


17. Panel on Muslim-Jewish relations at the National Federation of Temple Brotherhood and Jewish Chautauqua Society, New Orleans, LA (October 1992).


18. “Faith Meets Faith: The Legacy of Abraham in the Middle East Today.” Keynote speaker: Wesley Theological Seminary, Washington, D.C., symposium: Inter-religious dialogue (October 1992).


19. “1492-1992: These Five Centuries of Jewish-Christian-Muslim Relations.” Keynote speaker: Siena College’s Institute for Jewish-Christian Studies (October 1992).


20. “Islam in the United States.” “Parliament Lectures” series, Cedar Crest College, Allentown, PA (November 1992).


21. “Contemporary Problems and Challenges in Muslim Christian Relations.” Keynote speaker: “World Mission Institute,” Lutheran School of Theology, Chicago, IL (April 1993).


22. “Islam: Idol or Attitude.” The K. Brooke Anderson Lecture: Brown University, (May 1993).


23. “Cult and Culture: Common Saints and Shrines in Middle Eastern Piety.” Keynote speaker: Giorgio Levi Della Vida Award for Excellence in Islamic Studies, Gustave von Grunebaum Center for Near Eastern Studies, UCLA (May 1993).


24. “Enlarging Our Worldview: Undergraduate Education and the Middle East.” Keynote speaker: Southwest Institute for Research on Women, University of Arizona (June 1993).


25. “Salvation: Works, Grace and Eternal Life in Islam.” Speaker: Parliament of World Religions, Chicago, and “The Commonalities of Jesus in Christianity and Islam;” Interfaith Dialogue with Dr. Hans Kung (August 1993).


26. “The Influence of Islam on State Philosophy.” Keynote Speaker: Seminar, “The Role and Influence of Religions in Society,” Institute of Islamic Understanding, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia,   (September 1993).


27. “The Concept of Knowledge in Islam.” Keynote Speaker: Seminar, KUZA, Terengganu, Malaysia (September 1993).


28. “Suffering and Martyrdom in Islam.” Speaker: Conference on “Martyrdom” in World Religions, Smith College, Northampton, MA (October 1994).


29. “Asian Spirituality and Human Rights.” Speaker: International Conference on Rethinking Human Rights, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (December 6-7, 1994).


30. “Abrahamic Heritage in the Jewish Tradition.” Presenter: Convocation on Jewish-Muslim Relations in North America, Glencoe, IL (March 26, 1995).


31. Participant: Consultation of Christian-Muslim Studies, University of Balamand, Lebanon (May 24-28, 1995).


30. Concluding Address: Conference “Islam in Southeast Asia,” Jakarta, Indonesia (June 1995).


32. Keynote Speaker: Conference, “Islam and the West,” Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (June 1995).


33. “Exploring Dialogue:” Speaker, at the Faith in Dialogue: Lutheran Involvement in Ecumenical and Inter-religious Dialogues, Philadelphia (October 1995).


34. “Muhammad’s Mystical Vision: An Analysis of Surah 53 of the Qur’an.” Speaker at the II. Rudolph-Otto-Symposium: May 1996, Marburg, Germany.


35. Speaker at the Interfaith Symposium and Service: Where Non-Violence Begins, in memory of Yitzhak Rabin. October 1996, New York.


36. “Islam and Pluralism,” and “Islam in the Contemporary World.” Speaker at the London Seminar and Lecture, November 1996, Lampeter, UK.


37. Panel speaker at the Diplomat-In-Residence Conference: Islam and the West. April 1997, Philadelphia.


38. Speaker at the Berlin Conference on Sufism: May/June 1997 Berlin, Germany.


39. Speaker at the International Conference on Muslim-Christian Dialogue: Past, Present, & Future, August 1997, Jakarta, Indonesia.


40. Participant of the Balamand Colloquium on “Mutual Views and Changing Relations between Christians and Muslims,” and Consultation on “Cooperation in Christian-Muslim Studies,” August 1997, Lebanon.


41. “The Word of God in Islam.” Speaker at the Naples Biblia Congress on “Corano e Biblia,” October 1997, Settimello, Firenze (Italy).


42. “Islam: Faith and Practice,” “Religious Diversity and the Unity of Faith: Towards a Qur’anic Theology of Religious Pluralism,” and “Striving in God: The Meaning of the Jihad of the Spirit.” Speaker at the Ontario Conference on “Understanding Islam”. October 1997, Ontario, Canada.


43. “Palestinian Theology and Inter-religious Dialogue in the Middle-East.” Panel speaker at the AAR Conference. November 1997, San Francisco.


44. “Islam and Pluralism.” Speaker at the British Society for Middle East Studies (BRISMES) Annual Conference on “Religion and Pluralism”. July 1998, Birmingham, UK.


45. “A Critical Review of the Abrahamic Literature: A Christian-Muslim Reading.” Panel speaker at the “Abrahamic Heritage” Consultation organized by the Arab Working Group on Christian-Muslim Dialogue and the Middle East Council of Churches (MECC). July 1998, Lebanon.


46. “Jerusalem and the Prophets”, “The Miracles of Jesus: The Word of God & His Spirit”, & “The Death of Jesus and Human Redemption”. Co-keynoter for the Kanuga Episcopal Conference on “Jesus in Jerusalem Today: Jewish, Christian & Muslim Perspectives.” August 1998, Hendersonville, North Carolina.


47. “The Qur’an” & “Islam and the Concept of Divine Oneness”. Speaker at the Colgate University Lecture. October 1998, Hamilton, New York.


48. “The Qur’an & Qur’anic Exegesis” & “Problems and Possibilities in Muslim-Christian Dialogue”. Speaker at the Boston College Lecture. November 1998, Massachusetts.


49. “Disability in Islamic Tradition”. Speaker at the Opening Doors That All May Worship Conference on “Disability and Spirituality”. Organized by the “That All May Worship” Network. November 1998, Philadelphia.


50. Panel Speaker for the panel on “Reason and Revelation” at the Conference on “Islam and the Challenge of New Millennium.” Organized by the Institute of Islamic Studies of McGill University, National Federation of Pakistani Canadians, Pakistan Association of Quebec, and His Highness Prince Aga Khan Shia Imami Ismaili Council for Canada. April 1999, Montreal, Canada.


50. “Engaging the Other: Muslim Views of Christianity and Judaism.” Speaker at the Conference on “Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Divinity in a Political World.” Organized by the Centre for World Dialogue and cosponsored by the Centre for Muslim-Christian Understanding, Georgetown University. May 1999, Limassol, Cyprus.


51. Presenter at the “World Congress on Mulla Sadra.” Organized by the Sadra Islamic Philosophy Researches Institute. May 1999, Tehran, Iran.


52. “Recent Developments in the Institution of Supreme Juristic Authority (Marji’iyyah) in Shi’ism.” Speaker at the Third Triennial EURAMES (European Association for Middle East Studies) Conference. Organized and hosted by the Middle East Studies Centre of the Centre for Third World Studies, University of Ghent. September 1999, Ghent, Belgium.


53. Participant of the Consultation on “Religious Freedom, Community Rights and Individual Rights: A Christian- Muslim Perspective.” Organized by the World Council of Churches, Geneva, in collaboration with the MacDonald Center for the Study of Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations, Hartford Seminary. October 1999, Hartford Seminary, Hartford, Connecticut, USA.


54. Speaker: “How Muslims View Jesus and Christian Evangelism” and Respondent: “Introduction to the History and Theology of Islam” at the Evangelicals for Middle East Understanding (EMEU)’s National Conference on “Middle Eastern Christians in the Islamic Context: Lessons from the Past, Prospects for the Future”. Organized and co-sponsored by the World Vision International, Walnut Creek Presbyterian Church, San Francisco Presbytery Peacemaking Task Force, Overseas Ministries Study Center and the Bay Area Friends of EMEU. November 1999, Walnut Creek, California.


55. “Human Rights in Islam and Christianity.” Speaker at the Conference on “Religious Sources of Human Rights.” Organized by the Middle East Council of Churches. March 2000, Beirut, Lebanon.


56. “Islam in America.” Public lectures. Organized by the St. Joseph University and the Maqasid Islamic University. March & April 2000, Beirut, Lebanon.


57. “Suffering and Redemption in Islam.” Public-lecture. Organized by the Balamand Theological Seminary. March, 2000, Beirut, Lebanon.


58. “The Children of Abraham: From Conflict to Harmony”, “Islam: Faith and Practice” and “Interpreting the Qur’an”. Speaker at the “Islam for Christians” sessions. Organized and sponsored by the Cleveland Ecumenical Institute for Religious Studies, and co-sponsored by the Church of Covenant, Hallinan Center, Islamic Center of Cleveland, John Carroll University, St. Paul Church and the United Protestant Campus Ministries. April 2000, Cleveland Heights, Ohio.


59.      “Knowledge and Da’wah in Islam.” Invited speaker in conjunction with the Chair of Islamic Studies, University of Toledo. April 2000, Toledo, Ohio.


60. Participant and speaker at a Trilogue on “Religion and Responsibility in the Global Community”. Organized and sponsored by the National Conference for Community and Justice (NCCJ)’s Interfaith Round Table, and hosted by the Congregation Beth Shalom, in conjunction with the 14th Annual Symposium of the Muslim, Christian, Jewish Leadership Forum. April 2000, Oak Park, Michigan.


61. “The Place and Universality of Knowledge in Islam.” Speaker at the International Conference on “Islamization of Human Sciences.” Organized by the Kuliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia. August 2000, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.


62. “Islam and Religious Pluralism.” Speaker at the International Conference on “Identity and Plurality in Abrahamic Religions.” Organized by the Interfaith Dialogue Institute of Indonesia (Interfidei). August 2000, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.


63. Plenary speaker at the Inaugural Conference of the Center for American and Jewish Studies, Baylor University, on “The Next Fifty Years: Beginning a Millennium of Hope and Possibility.” Organized by the Center for American and Jewish Studies, Baylor University. November 2000, Waco, Texas.


64. Panelist on “Tenets of Faith: Religious Freedom and Islamic Teaching and Tradition,” at the Conference on “Islam and Religious Freedom.” Organized by the US Department of State. November 2000, Washington, D.C.


65.      “Proselytism in Islam.” Speaker at a roundtable discussion on the problems of proselytism. Organized by the US Commission on International Religious Freedom. November 2000, Washington, D.C.


66. Speaker on “America” and “Islam in America” for the U.S. Speaker and Specialist Program in Amman, Jordan and Bahrain. Organized by the U.S. Department of State. January 2001.


67. “Imam ‘Ali and Economic Justice.” Speaker at the International Congress on “Imam Ali and Justice, Unity and Security.” Organized by the Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies in collaboration with seven other organizations. March, 2001, Tehran, Iran.


68. Chair and Keynote speaker for the 1st International Conference on Imam al-Husayn’s Martyrdom: “Perspectives on Karbala”. Organized by Discursis Islamica. April 2001, London, UK.


69. Speaker on “America” and “Islam in America” for the U.S. Speaker and Specialist Program in Kuwait. Organized by the U.S. Department of State. October 2001.


70. “Islam and Islamic Fundamentalism.” Speaker at the public forum on “Islam and the Middle East.” Organized by the Delaware County Community College. October 2001, Media, Pennsylvania.


71. “The Theme of Community of Humanity in the Qur’an.” Panelist of panel on “Dialogue Among Civilizations in the Light of Monotheism” in the 20th Annual Conference on Ancient and Medieval Philosophy. Organized by the Institute of Global Cultural Studies and the Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, Binghamton University. October 2001, Binghamton, New York.


72. Participant of the ‘Jakarta Conference’ on “Islam, Democracy and Religious Pluralism.” A digital-video conferencing organized by the US Department of State. October 2001, Washington D.C.


73. “Islam and the World: September 11 and Its Cultural and Spiritual Implications.” Speaker at the Bucks County Community College Human Rights Forum on “Getting Perspective: Responding to the September 11 Tragedy.” Organized by the Department of Language and Literature, Bucks County Community College. November 2001, Newtown, Pennsylvania.


74. “The September 11 Tragedy: Lessons from Religion.” Organized by the Philadelphia Labor Union League. November 2001, Philadelphia.


75. Speaker at the Second International Conference for Rectors of Major Roman Catholic Seminaries on “Inculturation and Inter-religious Dialogue.” Organized by The Cardinal Suenens Program for Theology and Church Life, John Carroll University. January, 2002, Rome, Italy.


76. “Religion and Violence: The Case of Islam.” Public-lecture for the Chair of Judeo-Christian Studies, Tulane University. February 2002, New Orleans.


77. Public Lecture. Franklin and Marshall College. February 2002, Lancaster, PA.


78. Panelist for the panel on “Conflict Resolution in the Monotheistic Religions – Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Keeping Peace Among the Faithful,” in the International Conference on “Conflict Resolution: Dialogue Among Cultures and Religions.” Organized by the Institute of Advanced Theology, Bard College, and Global Publications, Binghamton University; cosponsored by the International Association of University Presidents and Brigham Young University. April 2002, New York, NY.


79. “God’s Broad Earth.” Speaker at Conference on “Religious Diversity in North America and Southeast Asia.” Jointly organized by the Malaysian-American Alumni Society and the U.S. State Department. August 2002, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.


80. “Islam in the West.” Speaker at Conference on “Islam and the West.” Organized by the IAIN-Syarif Hidayatullah, Indonesia, and U.S. State Department. September 2002, Jakarta, Indonesia.


81. Speaker at Conference on “The Inner Life of Islam and Outer Influences.” Organized by the Department of Philosophy, Brock University, Ontario, Canada. November 2002.


82.      “Contemporary Islam and How It Impacts on the Relations Between the United States and the Muslim World.” Lecture for the Honors Class, 230, ‘Islam in Comparative Perspective,’ College of New Jersey, New Jersey. November 2002.


83. “An Islamic Perspective on the Muslim-Jewish Relationship.” Lecture at the Jewish Education Association, Whippany, New Jersey. November 2002.


84. Participant in a workshop on “Mysterium Tremendum: Horror and the Aesthetics of Religious Experience.” Organized by the Working Group Modernity and Islam, Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin, and the members of the project “Jewish and Islamic Hermeneutics as Cultural Critique.” December 2002, Berlin, Germany.


85. “Evolution and Qur’an Exegesis.” Participant at Conference on “Science and Religion.” Jointly organized by Templeton Foundation and Gadja Mada University, Yogyakarta. January 2003, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.


86. Participant in the “Who Wrote Down the Qur’an?” Conference. Organized by the Penn Humanities Forum in association with the Middle East Center, University of Pennsylvania. February 2003, Philadelphia.


87. Participant of The Future of Muslim-Christian Relations Conference. Organized by the Diplomat-in-Residence Program of La Salle University. May 2003, Philadelphia.


88. Participant of the Scientific and Religious Perspective on Altruism International-Interfaith-Interdisciplinary Conference. Hosted by the Institute for Research on Unlimited Love and the Metanexus Institute on Religion and Science, in collaboration with the Columbia Center for the Study of Science and Religion and the Center for Research on Religion & Urban Civil Society at UPenn; sponsored by the American Teilhard Association and the Templeton Foundation Press. May/June 2003, Villanova, PA.


89. Panelist in the Jewish-Muslim Dialogue Panel. Organized by the Canadian Muslim-Jewish Community. September 2003, Montreal.


90.      “Philanthropy in Islam And Its Effect On Contemporary Society in America.” Speaker at the Religion and Philanthropy Seminar. Organized by the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS). October 2003, Washington, DC.


91. “Islam.” Guest speaker at the National Pastoral Care Week Session. Organized by the Department of Pastoral Care, Jeanes Hospital. October 2003, Philadelphia.


92. Visiting Lecturer at the Christian-Muslim Relations and Interfaith Dialogue Series. Organized by the Macdonald Center, Hartford Seminary. December 2003, Hartford, Connecticut.


93. Participant of the Theorizing Scriptures Conference. Organized by Claremont Graduate University. February 2004, Claremont, California.


94. “The Discourses of Jihad and War in the Qur’an and Islamic Tradition.” Keynote speaker at the War and Martial Metaphor in Scripture symposium. Organized by the University of Oregon. February/March 2004, Eugene, Oregon.


95. Invited speaker for the World Affairs Council of Philadelphia’s Great Decisions 2004 Series. March 2004, Philadelphia.


96. Participant of the Building Bridges Muslim-Christian Seminar. Organized by the Office of the Archbishop of Canterbury. March/April 2004, Washington DC.


97.  Speaker at the Collaboration of Civilizations: The Future of Muslim, Jewish and Christian Relations Lecture Series. Organized by the Department of Theology, Marquette University. April 2004, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.


98.  Co-organizer and participant in international conference Concepts of Justice in Evangelical Christian and Islamic Thought.  November 2006, Chicago, IL.


99.  Speaker, Earl Endowed Lecture, Pacific School of Religion, Berkeley, CA, January 2007.




Script consultant on a series of documentary films on the Middle East, sponsored by Television Ontario in Canada and the Encyclopedia Britannica, (1987-88).


Script Consultant on a series of films on democracy by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, (1987-88).


Interviewed by Bill Moyer and appeared in the PBS Documentary series “Beyond Hate” (Fall, 1990).


Participated in a video consultation with numerous scholars and members of Congress on the Middle East, “Bridging the Gulf” for Cable-Vision Television (Spring 1991).


Participant in a film “Abraham and His Children” produced by the Jewish Chatauqua Society for schools, synagogues, churches and other study groups to promote dialogue between Muslims, Christians and Jews to be aired on Cable Vision Television (Fall 1991).


Guest Appearance on the “WYSP-FM’s ‘90-Forum’” (a public service radio talk show). December 1998, Philadelphia.


Video interview by a Los Angeles educational video company on “Islam and the West.” October 1999, Philadelphia.


Interview by the Philadelphia Inquirer. November 1999, Philadelphia.


Telephone interview by Newsweek. March 2000, Lebanon.


Telephone & TV interviews on the September 11 tragedy by news and TV media: New York Times, Washington Post, Philadelphia Inquirer, KYW-3 TV, etc. September-December 2001.


“Emergence of the Iraqi Shi‘a.” Participant in the ‘On Point’ radio discussion program hosted by the WBUR group in Boston. April 2003.





Middle East Studies Association (1975 – Present, with lapses).

American Academy of Religion (1975 – Present, with lapses).

American Oriental Society (1975 – 1992, with lapses).

Canadian Society for the Study of Religion (1975 – 1992).




Kent Doctoral Fellowship


Canada Council Fellowship.


Fulbright Exchange of Scholars program for Malaysia (1994 – 1995).


Fulbright Exchange of Scholars program for Egypt and Lebanon (Spring – Summer 2000).


Fulbright Senior Specialists Program for Malaysia (January 2003)