Ph.D. Government, University of Virginia, 1974
M.A. Public Administration, University of Virginia, 1971
B.A. Political Science, Hampton University, 1969
Languages: English, Arabic, Wollof, Mandingo.
Muslims in the American Public Square Project
Center for Muslim/Christian Understanding
Georgetown University, Washington, DC.
African Voices Project
African Studies, Howard University, Washington, DC
African Studies, Howard University, Washington, DC
Gambia Embassy, Saudi Arabia
African Studies and Research
University of Virginia
Professor Nyang has rendered service to the following organizations to promote dialogue and foster knowledge about African affairs globally, among Africans, and people of African descent:
African Studies Association, US and Canada.
American Muslim Council (1999-2002).
Council on American Islamic Relations, Washington, DC.
Center for Balanced Development, Herndon, Virginia.
The World Council of Muslims for Inter-religious Dialogue.
Journal of Islamic Studies, Karachi, Pakistan.
Advisory Board of the Religion and Ethics Weekly TV Program run by Bob Abernethy
Advisory Board of the American Muslim Council, Washington, DC 1992-99.
Academic Advisory Council of the Center for Muslim‑Christian Understanding, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C.
Editorial Board of American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, US.
Editorial Board of Current Bibliography on African Affairs, US.
Editorial Board of Journal of Asian and African Affairs, US.
Editorial Board of Journal of Third World Spectrum, Washington, D.C, US.
Editorial Board of Howard University Journal of Negro Education
Editorial Board of Islam and Christian‑Muslim Relations, Birmingham, UK
Editorial Board of Journal of Islamic Law, US.
Editorial Board of Islamic Horizons, organ of the Islamic Society of North America
Chairperson, Africa/International Committee of the Montgomery County Chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
Chairperson, African Studies Department, Howard University – (1986-93)
Lead Developer, Project of the Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.
President of the Interfaith Conference of Metropolitan Washington, 1996‑Present.
Vice President, American Council for the Study of Islamic Societies, Villanova University.
First Henry Luce Forum Visiting Professor, University of Hartford, and the Hartford Seminary
External Reviewer, African and Southeast Asian universities.
External Examiner, US, and Canadian universities.
Senior Consultant, Timbuktu Project, District of Columbia School Board.
Consultant, UN Human Rights Center, Geneva, Switzerland, UNDP and The World Bank.
Member, Dream Team of Scholars, Tannenbaum Foundation, and participated in a conference: “Seeking the Religious Roots of Pluralism,” April 1997, New York City, NY.
Lectures and Mass Media Appearances:
Keynote Address at the Eid el‑Adha Celebrations held at the National Parliament of Canada, Ottawa, March 29, 2000.
Member of 3‑person panel to open “The African Voices” exhibition at the Museum of Natural History, December 15, 1999.
Keynote Address at the International Conference organized by the South African Center for Training and Development, April 27, 1999
The Grayson Kirk Distinguished Lecture at Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, November, 1998.
The Ismail al‑Faruqi Lecture at the Annual Meeting of the Association of Muslim Social Scientists in Chicago, November 1998
Special Lecture on "Islam in America" at Chautauqua, New York, 1995.
Distinguished Professor Lecture at York College, York, PA. 1993
Distinguished Professor Lecture at York College, York, Pennsylvania 1992.
Guest on African Affairs, CNN, International.
Host of Africa Plus Weekly Cable TV Program focusing on African affairs
Member of Distinguished Panelist with other world personalities at the Annual Seminar/Workshop Program of the World Bank and IMF.
1999 Nyang, Sulayman S., Islam in the United States of America, Chicago, Illinois: ABC International, Inc.
_______1995 and Evan Hendricks A Line in the Sand: Saudi Arabia's Role in the Gulf War, Washington, D.C: P.T. Books.
_______1993 and Olupona Jacob Religious Plurality in Africa: Essays in Honor of John S. Mbiti, Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyther.
_______1990 and Henry Thompson, (eds), Islam. Its Relevance Today, Barrytown, New York: Unification Theological Seminary.
_______1984. Islam, Christianity and African Identity, Brattleboro, Vermont: Amana Books.
_______ 1984, Reflections on the Human Condition, Lawrenceville, Virginia: Brunswick Publishing Company.
_______ 1981, Ali A. Mazrui: The Man and His Works, Lawrenceville, Virginia: Brunswick Publishing Company.
_______Forthcoming, Seven Essays on Islam in America, Chicago, Illinois: Kazi Publications.
_______Forthcoming, Studies in Gambian Politics.
_______Forthcoming, and Abdoulaye Saine, (eds), State and Society in the Gambia
_______Forthcoming, and Akwasi Osei, (eds), Kwame Nkrumah: The Man and His Times.
Chapters in Books:
______ 2003. "Continuities and Discontinuities in Islamic Culture," in Abdul Aziz Said and Meena S. Funk, (eds), Cultural Diversity and Islam, New York: University Press of America
_____ 2003. "Islamic Education in the United States of America" in Shireen Hunter & Huma Malik, (eds), Integrating Muslim Communities in Europe and the United States. A Transatlantic Dialogue, Washington, D.C: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 23‑28.
______ 2003. and Douglas Johnston, (eds), "Conflict Resolution As A Normative Value in Islamic Law: Applications to Sudan” in Douglas Johnston, (eds), Faith‑Based Diplomacy. Trumping Real Politik, New York: Oxford University Press. 210‑227.
______ 2002. "The Experience of African‑American Muslims" in Shireen Hunter & Huma Malik, (eds), Islam in Europe and the United States: A Comparative Perspective Washington, D.C: Center for Strategic International Studies. 38‑43.
______ 2002 "Continental African Muslims in the United States of America," in Yvonne Z. Haddad, (eds), Muslims in the West. From Sojourners to Citizens, New York: Oxford University Press.
______ 2002 "Religion and the Maintenance of Boundaries: An Islamic Perspective," in Sohail H. Hashmi, (eds), Islamic Political Ethics, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 102‑112.
_____ 2001."Religion and the maintenance of Boundaries: An Islamic Perspective," in David Miller and Sohail H. Hashmi, (eds). Boundaries and Justice, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. 203‑212.
_____ 2001. "Convergence and Divergence within the American Muslim Movement," in Charles Selengut, (eds), Jewish‑Muslim Encounters: History, Philosophy and Culture, St. Paul, Minnesota: Paragon House.180‑196.
_____ 2000 "A Letter to A Muslim College Student" in AMSA’s publication called Letters to the Muslim College Student, Richardson, Texas: AMSA Publishers.14‑17.
_____ 2000, "American Pluralism, Islam and the Challenges Interfaith Dialogue on the American Campus," in Victor H. Kazanjian and Peter Laurence, Education as Transformation. Religious Pluralism, Spirituality: A New Vision for Higher Education in America, New York: Peter Lang.
_____ 1999. "Concluding Remarks" at the Second Workshop on Conflict Resolution in Africa, organized by the Center for Conflict Prevention and Resolution, in association with the Institute for Conflict Analysis and Prevention, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia. March 27th, 1999. 14‑20.
_____ 1999. "Ali A. Mazrui: The Man and His Works" in Abdul Samed Bemath, (compiled) The Mazruiana Collection. A Comprehensive Annotated Bibliography of the Published Works of Ali A. Mazrui, Trenton, New Jersey. 9‑40.
_____ 1998. "Muslim‑Christian Relations in Africa: Problems and Prospects" in Kenneth King, (eds), Running, Reporting and Researching Africa, Edinburgh, Scotland: African Studies Center, University of Edinburgh.
_____ 1997. "Muslim Intellectual Emigre in the United States," in M. Taher.(eds), Encyclopedic Survey of Islamic Culture, New Delhi, India: Vedams Books. Volume 14, Chapter 14.
_____ 1997. " African Muslims " in David Levinson and Melvin Ember, (eds), American Immigrant Cultures: Builders of a Nation, New York: Macmillan Reference USA. 20‑27.
_____ 1997. "The Islamic State and Economic Development," in M. Taher, (eds), Encyclopedic Survey of Islamic Culture, New Delhi, India: Vedams Books. Volume 8, Chapter 6.
_____ "Scriptural Faith and Ethnicity: Some Lessons from the Islamic Experience, " in Paul Peachey, George McLean and John Kromkowski, (eds), Abrahamic Faiths, Ethnicity and Ethnic Conflicts, Washington, D.C: The Council for Research in Values & Philosophy. 237‑252.
______ 1995. "Elijah Muhammad," in John Esposito, (ed), Oxford Encyclopedia of The Modern Islamic World, New York: Oxford University Press.
______ 1995. "The Islamic Society of North America," in John Esposito, (ed), The Oxford Encyclopedia of the IslamicWorld, New York: Oxford University Press.
______ 1995. " Islam in the Gambia," in John Esposito, (ed), The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World, New York: Oxford University Press.
______ 1995. "Ethnic Relations in the Gambia: An Historical Perspective," in Feraidom Shams, (eds), State and Society in Africa, Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America.
_____ 1995. "Christian‑Muslim Relations in the United States of America,” in Yvonne Haddad and Wadi Haddad, (eds), Christian‑Muslim Encounter, Gainesville, Florida: University of Florida Press.
_____ 1995. "Challenges Facing Christian‑Muslim Dialogue in the United States," in Yvonne Y. Haddad and Wadi Z. Haddad, (eds), Christian‑Muslim Encounters, Gainesville: University Press of Florida. 328‑341.
_____ 1994. "Cultural Consequences of Development," in Ismail Serageldin and June Tabaroff, (eds), Culture and Development in Africa, Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.
_____ 1994. "The Honorable Elijah Muhammad and the Black Quest for Identity in the U.S." in Adib Rashad (James Miller), (eds), Elijah Muhammad and the Ideological Foundations of the Nation of Islam Hampton, Virginia: U.B. & U.S. Communications Systems. 250‑261.
_____ 1993. "Gambia" in Joel Krieger, (eds), The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World, New York: Oxford University Press.
______1992. "Sir Dawda Kairabna Jawara," in Harvey Glickman, (ed), Political Leaders of Contemporary Africa South of the Sahara, Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. 95‑100.
______1992. " Islam in the United States of America: A Review of the Sources," in Michael A. Koszegi and J. Gordon Melton, (eds), Islam in the United States of America: A Source Book, New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 3‑24.
______ 1991. "Convergence and Divergence in an Emergent Community: A Study of Challenges Facing U.S. Muslims,” in Yvonne Z. Haddad, (eds), The Muslims of America New York: Oxford University Press. 236‑49.
______ 1991. "Christian‑Muslim Relations in Africa," in Kortright Davis and Elias Farajaje‑Jones, (eds), African Creative Expressions of the Divine, Washington, D.C: Howard University School of Divinity. 181‑192.
_____1990. "Enhancing the World Through Dialogue: Interfaith Panel Discussion on the Holocaust," Views expressed on a panel with Professor John Roth of Claremont McKenna College and Martin Hertz of New York, published in Tikkun Olam (Official Proceedings of the National Federation of Temple Brotherhoods), November 7‑11. 84‑85.
______1988. "Reverend Moon's Vision and the Activities of the Unification Movement in the Contemporary World," in Frederick Sontang & Thomas Walsh, (eds.), Unificationism and Modern Society, New York: International Cultural Foundation. 93‑104.
______1988. " West Africa", in Shireen T. Hunter, (eds), The Politics of Islamic Revivalism, Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. 204‑226.
______1988. " Islam in North America," in Peter Clarke, (eds), The World's Religion: Islam
London and New York: Rutledge. 214‑223.
______1985. "Islam in Africa." in Dobers, Erl, Khoury, Ndam Njoya (eds.), Development and Solidarity: Joint Responsibility of Muslims and Christians, Main, Germany: V. Hase & Keohler. Published for the Institute for International Solidarity, Konrad Adenauer Foundation, 84-104.
______1985. "The Islamic Concept of Sin," in Durwood Foster and Paul Mojzes (eds), Society and Original Sin, New York: Paragon House Publishers. 52‑61.
______1985. "The Islamic Concept of Sin," in Durwood Foster & Paul Mojzes, (eds), Society and Original Sin: Ecumenical Essays on the Impact of the Fal, New York: Paragon House Publishers
______1984. and Samir Robbo, "Bernard Lewis and Islamic Studies” in Islam, Islamists and Orientalism, Brattleboro, Vermont.
______1984. "Millennialism in African Traditional Thought," in Joseph Bettis and S. K. Johannessen, (eds), The Return of the Millennium, Barrytown, New York: New Era Books, 181‑206.
______1980. and Abdulai S. Vandi, "Pan‑Africanism in World History ," in Molefi
Kete Asante and Abdulai S. Vandi, (eds), Contemporary Black Thought: Alternative Analyses in Social and Behavioral Science, Beverly Hills/London: Sage Publications. 243‑257.
______1975. "A Short Bibliographic Essay on U.S. Policy Toward Southern Rhodesia," in Mohamed El‑Khawas and Francis Kornegay, Jr American‑Southern African Relations Bibliographic Essays, Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. 32‑46.
______ "Postscript to Ali A. Mazrui: The Man and His Works" in Abdul Samed Bemath, 41‑50
______ "The Impact of U.S. Constitutionalism in Africa: A Gambia Case Study," in Kenneth W. Thompson, (ed), The U.S. Constitution and Constitutionalism in Africa, Charlottesville, Virginia: The White Burkett Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia.
Introduction and Forward to Books:
_____2000. Forward to Javed A. Mohammed, Wisdom: Heart of Gold, Pyramid Connections
_____1998. Forward to Angela Nwaneri (eds) Nigeria: Visions for the Future, Ibadan, Nigeria: Macmillan Nigeria Publishers Limited.
_____1998. Forward to Amir Nashid Ali Muhammad, Muslims in America: Seven Centuries of History (1312‑1998) Collections and Stories of American Muslims, Beltsville, MD, Amana Publications. vii‑viii.
_______1997 Forward to Islam and Trade in Sierra Leone, (eds), Alusine Jalloh and David E. Skinner, Trenton, New Jersey: Africa World Press. xiii‑xv.
______ 1996. Forward to Muslims in America. Opportunities and Challenges, edited by Asad Husain, John Woods and Javed Akhter, Chicago, Illinois: International Strategy and Policy Institute, ix‑xvii.
______1995. Introduction to Islam, Black Nationalism and Slavery: A Detailed History, (eds), Adib Rashad, Beltsville, Maryland: Writers' Inc. 1‑5.
______1992. Forward to Getachew Metaferria and Maiginot Shifferew, Ethiopian Immigrants in the United States, Buffalo, New York: Edwin Mellen
______1991. Forward to Farid Numan, Muslim Population in the United States of America, Washington, D.C. American Muslim Council.
_____1991. Forward to Ibrahim Mohamed Fofanah, Middle East Conflict, Lawrenceville, Virginia: Brunswick Publishing Company. xi‑xii.
______2002. “Islam and the Evolution of Our Concept of Human Rights," in Thomas G. Walsh, (eds), The State of the Muslim World Today, New York: Paragon House.
______2000. "Muhammad: The Universal Man of All Times," The World & I Main Currents in Human Thought, January.
______2000. "Jewish‑Muslim Relations in the United States: Convergence and Divergence," Dialogue & Alliance, Vol.14(1) Spring/Summer, 100‑116.
______1998. “The African Immigrant Family in the United States of America,” CAPCR Newsletter, Center for African Peace and Conflict Resolution, Volume 1.
______1998. "Islam in America: An Historical Perspective," The American Muslim Quarterly, Vol.1(2) 1‑30.
______1998. "Conceptualizing Globalization," The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, Vol.15(3) fall,129‑132.
______1997. “The Slave and the Master, Why Are There Slaves in Africa: A Brief Note on the Question of Slavery in Sudan and Mauritania,” Djembe, a Danish Internet Magazine, No.19, January. Article was originally posted to the Gambia‑l on the Internet in December 1996.
______1997. "Seeking the Religious Roots of Pluralism in the United States of America: An American Muslim Perspective," Journal of Ecumenical Studies, Vol. 34(3) 402‑417.
______1997. “Islam in Contemporary Indonesia”, Proceedings of a Workshop sponsored by the United States Indonesia Society at The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, 1619 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C., March, 11.
______1997 "Demilitarization and the Quest for Democracy in Africa ," A Commentary on Fighting Retreat: Military Political Power and Other Barriers to Africa's Democratic Transition Washington, D.C: Demilitarization for Democracy, 45‑47.
______1997 " African Muslims " in David Levinson and Melvin Ember, (eds), American Immigrant Cultures: Builders of a Nation, New York: Macmillan Reference. 20‑27
______1996 " A Note on the Idea of Senegambia," Jali Baa, Vol. 1 (2) 7‑8.
______1995. "Senegambia‑Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow," Jali Baa, Vol. 1(11).11‑12.
______1993 "Somalia: The Real Story," Al‑Talib, UCLA pages 10-11, 16, 18, February.
______1993 "Muslim‑Christian Dialogue," The Message, 31‑33.
______1992. Book review of Louis Kriesberg's International Conflict Resolution: The U.S.‑U.SS.R and Middle East Cases, published in Mediterranean Quarterly, Fall, Vol. 3(4) 138-141.
______1992 "The New World Order: The Muslim Response," The Message International, 29‑31.
______1991 "The Gulf War and Its Consequences for the Middle East," Journal of Asian & African Studies, Vol.3(1) July, 1‑6.
______1990. “Political Change in South Africa," Journal of Asian & African Affairs, Vol. 2 (1). 7‑8.
______1990. "Muslim: Players, Not Spectators" The Message International, September, 17‑19.
______1990 and Feraidoon Shams, "Fanon and Shariati on Alienation," Journal of Asian and African Affairs, Vol. 2(1) July, 125‑134.
______1990 Book review of Emma S. Etuk's Destiny is not a Matter of Chance, published in Journal of Asian and African Affairs, Vol. 2(2) December, 211‑215.
______1989. "Islam & the African‑American Community," Islamic Horizons, Vol. 18(7-8) July‑August, 38‑43.
______1987. "Panafricanism Revisited," African Concord, August 20, 13‑14.
______1987 "Frantz Fanon: Prophet of the Third World," African Concord, April 30, 47‑48.
______1986. "The Gambia: Politics Among Friends," African Concord, 17‑18.
______1986. "Black Lips, White Words," Africa Events, November, 41‑43.
______1986 and Mumtaz Ahmad, "United Nations at the Crossroads," Arabia, The Islamic World Review, January, 16‑17.
______1986 "Youth and Politics in the Gambia," African Concord June 19, 22‑23.
______1986 "Islamophobia and France in Africa," Africa Events, November.
______1986 "History of Muslims in North America," Al‑Ittihad, September, 39f.
______1986 Book review of Robin Wright's Sacred Rage London: Andrew Deutsch, published in African Concord October 2, 38.
______1986. Book review of James H. Cone's My Soul Looks Back Maryknoll, New York: Orbis, African Concord (May 22).
______1986. A review article of Ali A. Mazrui's The Africans, London: BBC, published in Africa Events, Sept.‑Oct., 39‑43.
______1985. "The Gambia: Independently Approaching Democracy," Arabia, August, 30‑31.
______1984 "Pakistan and the Organization of Islamic Conference," Journal of South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 7(3). (A longer version of the paper appeared in the American Journal of Islamic Studies, Vol.1(2).
______1984. Two entries on Edward Wilmot Blyden and Kwame Nkrumah respectively in The Dictionary of Modern Peace Leaders of the World, Harold Josephson, (eds), Greenwood Press.
______1984 and Samir Robbo, "Bernard Lewis and Islamic Studies," Search: Journal of Arab/Islamic Studies, Vol. 5(1-2).
______1984 "Sekou Toure's Islamic Connections," Arabia
______1984 "Pakistan's Role in the Organization of the Islamic Conference," Journal of South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies, Vol.7(3)14‑33.
______1984 Book review of Clifton E. Marsh, From Black Muslims to Muslims, Philadelphia: Scarcerow Press, Inc., published in Arabia, London May, 1986 and in Phylon, Atlanta, 1986, Vol.XLVII(2).
______1983. A Review Essay on Arabs in the New World, Saudi Gazzette. Also published in The American‑Arab Affairs Journal.
______1982. "Saudi Arabian Foreign Policy Towards Africa," Horn of Africa, Vol.V(2) 3‑17.
______1982. A review article: Dunstan M.Wai, “The African‑Arab Conflict in the Sudan,” The Horn of Africa, Volume 5(1) 68‑70.
______1982 Review of John Anamaleze, Jr., The Nigerian Press: The People’s Conscience, New York: Vantage Press, 1979 in Africa Report, 56. January‑February.
______1981. "The World of Islam. The Impact of Islam on Black Africa," UNESCO Courier, August/September, 31‑33.
______1981 and Robert Cummings, "Black Colleges and Universities. The International Student and the Challenges," The Academic Affairs Bulletin Office of the Vice President for Academic Affairs, Howard University Volume V(1) April, 11‑15.
______1981 "The Politics of Defection: An Enquiry into the Demise of the Gambia United Party," African Studies, Taiwan, Vol. 8, 34‑57.
______1980. "Islam in America," a text delivered as a lecture on "Sunrise Semester," New York University Television Show on National CBS Television.
______1980 Review of Bernard Fonlon, Genuine Intellectual, Yaounde, Cameroon, in Journal of African Studies, UCLA, Volume 7(2) 134‑35, Summer.
______1979. "Islam and Modern Ideologies," Rabetah Journal Makkah, Saudi Arabia, Vol.6, No. 5.
______1979. "Frantz Fanon and the African Revolution: A critical Study," New Directions, Howard University Alumni Magazine, April, 1979
______1977 "Ten Years of Gambia's Independence," Presence Africaine, No.104
______1977 "Islam in the Gambia, " The Journal, Rabetah al‑Alam al‑Islami,Vol..4 (6) 26‑32.
______1977 "Islam and Technological Man," Rabetah Journal, Makkah, Saudi Arabia Vol.6, No.4.
______1976. "Recent Trends in Gambian Politics," L'Afrique et Asie Modernes, CHEAM, France No. 109.
______1976. "Literature and the Cosmic Schizophrenic Tendencies of Man," Catholic Library World, Vol. 48(2) September, 65‑70.
______1976 "The Islamic State and Economic Development," Islamic Culture, India, Vol. 50, No.1 January.
______1976 "Literature and the Cosmic Schizophrenic Tendencies of Man," Catholic Library World, Vol.48, No.2.
______1976 "An African Scholar Looks at America's Bicentennial," Core Magazine New York, Bicentennial Issue.
______1976 " A Contribution to the Study of Islam in the Gambia," Pakistan Historical Journal, February.
______1976 "Histoire de Developpement des Partis Politiques en Gambie," Revue Francaise d' estudes Politiques Africaines, Vol. 11(129).
______ 1976 "Politics in a Schizoid World," Pan African Journal, Vol. 6, No. 2.
______1975. Review of Ali A. Mazrui, World Culture and the Black Experience Seattle, Washington: Washington University Press, in Nigerian Journal of Economic and Social Studies, Volume 17(1) 159-161, March 1974.
______1975. "Politics in Post Independence Gambia," Current Bibliography on African Affairs, Summer.
______1975. "Politics in Post Independence Gambia," Current Bibliography on African Affairs, Summer.
______1975. "Gambia: A State in Search of Viability," Africana Marburgensia, Gerrmany, Vol.8.
______1975. " Islam and Panafricanism," L'Afrique et Asie Modernes CHEAM , France No.104.
______1975. "Historical Development of Political Parties in the Gambia," African Studies” The Program of African Studies, National Chengchi University, Republic of China, No. 4, January, 145‑173.
______1975 "Road to Nationhood: Cabral's Political Thought," New Directions , Vol. 2(2) 18‑23.
______1974. "Tourism and Gambia's Viability Problem," L'Afrique et Asie Modernesd, CHEAM, France, No.101.
______1974. "The Southern African Problem and African Security," Pan African Journal, Summer.
______ "Message to Muslim People in North America," The American Muslim, Volume II (9), 5‑6.
______Book review of Omer Beshir Mohamed's Terra Media: The Sudanese Studies Association Newsletter, Vol. 7(2) 4‑9.
______Book review of Khair El‑Din Haseeb's The Arabs and Africa, Canadian Journal of African Studies, Vol.20(2) 290‑292.